The iron maiden is a torture device, consisting of a solid iron cabinet with a hinged front and spike-covered interior, sufficiently tall to enclose a human being. The first stories citing the iron maiden were composed in the 19th century. The use of iron maidens is considered to be a myth, heightened by the belief that people of the Middle Ages were uncivilized; evidence of their actual use is difficult to find. They have become a very popular image in media involving the Middle Ages.
Despite its reputation as a medieval instrument of torture, there is no evidence of the existence of iron maidens before the 19th century. There are, however, ancient reports of the Spartan tyrant Nabis using a similar device around 200 B.C. for extortion and murder. The Abbasid vizier Ibn al-Zayyat is said to have created a \"wooden oven-like chest that had iron spikes\" for torture, which would ironically be used during his own imprisonment and execution in 847.
Wolfgang Schild, a professor of criminal law, criminal law history, and philosophy of law at the Bielefeld University, has argued that putative iron maidens were pieced together from artifacts found in museums to create spectacular objects intended for (commercial) exhibition. Several 19th-century iron maidens are on display in museums around the world, including the San Diego Museum of Man, the Meiji University Museum, and several torture museums in Europe.
The 19th-century iron maidens may have been constructed as probable misinterpretation of a medieval Schandmantel, which was made of wood and metal but without spikes. Inspiration for the iron maiden may also have come from the Carthaginian execution of Marcus Atilius Regulus as recorded in Tertullian's \"To the Martyrs\" (Chapter 4) and Augustine of Hippo's The City of God (I.15), in which the Carthaginians \"shut him into a tight wooden box, where he was forced to stand, spiked with the sharpest nails on all sides so that he could not lean in any direction without being pierced,\" or from Polybius' account of Nabis of Sparta's deadly statue of his wife, the Iron Apega (earliest form of the device).
The most famous iron maiden that popularized the design was that of Nuremberg, first displayed possibly as far back as 1802. The original was lost in the Allied bombing of Nuremberg in 1945. A copy \"from the Royal Castle of Nuremberg\", crafted for public display, was sold through J. Ichenhauser of London to the Earl of Shrewsbury in 1890 along with other torture devices, and, after being displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893, was taken on an American tour. This copy was auctioned in the early 1960s and is now on display at the Medieval Crime Museum, Rothenburg ob der Tauber.
Although she is often referred to as \"Joséphine de Beauharnais\", it is not a name she used in her lifetime. \"Beauharnais\" is the name of her first husband, which she ceased to use upon her marriage to Napoleon, taking the last name \"Bonaparte\". And she did not use the name \"Joséphine\" before meeting Napoleon, who was the first to call her such, perhaps from her middle name, Josèphe. In her life before Napoleon, she went by the name of Rose, or Marie-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, later de Beauharnais. She sometimes reverted to using her maiden name in later life. After her marriage to then-General Bonaparte, she adopted the name Joséphine Bonaparte. The misnomer \"Joséphine de Beauharnais\" emerged during the Bourbon restoration, who were hesitant to refer to her by either Napoleon's surname or her imperial title.
In January 1812 Byron resumed his seat in the House of Lords, allying himself with the Liberal Whigs. During his political career he spoke but three times in the House of Lords, taking unpopular sides. In his maiden speech on February 27 he defended stocking weavers in his home area of Nottinghamshire who had broken the improved weaving machinery, or frames, that deprived them of work and reduced them to near starvation; he opposed as cruel and unjust a government-sponsored bill that made frame breaking a capital offense. On April 21, he made a plea for Catholic emancipation, the most controversial issue of the day.
Pauline applied for a divorce a few days later, \"to protect herself against his brutality\". Divorce in Egypt was not a complicated matter and within hours Sartelon, the commissaire of Cairo granted the divorce. Pauline adopted her maiden name and became Bonaparte's official mistress. She presided over dinners, acted as his hostess and was attended by his aides; all except Eugene Beauharnais, who pointed out the anomaly of the situation to his stepfather.
The ship was registered as the North River Steam Boat but it was popularly called the Claremont after Robert Livingston's home. On August 17, 1807, the paddle wheel driven steamboat made its maiden voyage up the Hudson River to Albany at an average speed of five miles per hour. The Claremont was a technical success, but more importantly, a commercial success. Fulton insisted that the ship be well attended and that the needs of its passengers be tended to.
There was no time for a prolonged honeymoon. Napoleon was leaving in two days to take command of the Army of Italy, a promotion rumoured to be a wedding present from Barras. Before his departure, Napoleon decided his name should be gallicized from the original Corsican spelling. Napoleone Buonaparte, to Napoleon Bonaparte, and he renamed his new wife Josephine, derived from her maiden name of Marie-Josephe-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie.
IRON MAIDEN= A fictional medieval instrument of torture consisting of an iron frame in the form of a person in which the victim was enclosed and impaled on interior spikes. (see picture). No account has been found earlier than 1793, although medieval torture devices were catalogued and reproduced during the 19th century. Wolfgang Schild, a professor of criminal law, criminal law history, and philosophy of law at the University of Bielefeld, has argued that supposed iron maidens were pieced together from artifacts found in museums to create spectacular objects intended for (commercial) exhibition. Several 19th-century iron maidens are on display in museums around the world, but it is unlikely that they were ever employed. These were build as a probable misinterpretation of a medieval \"Schandmantel\" (\"mantle of shame\"), which was made of wood and tin but without spikes. Iron Maidens are sometimes included in exhibitions about Medieval torture instruments, which is simply aimed to impress the public by deceiving them.
argh / aargh / aaargh / aaaargh / aaarrgh / aaaaaaaaaaaaaaarrrrrgh (etc) - This is a remarkable word because it can be spelled in so many ways. Argh (the shortest version) is an exclamation, of various sorts, usually ironic or humorous (in this sense usually written and rarely verbal). More dramatically Aaaaaaaaaargh would be a written scream. Aaaarrrgh (there are hundreds of popular different spelling variants) typically expresses a scream or cry of ironic or humorous frustration. The word itself and variations of Aaargh are flourishing in various forms due to the immediacy and popularity of internet communications (blogs, emails, etc), although actually it has existed in the English language as an exclamation of strong emotion (surprise, horror, anguish, according to the OED) since the late 1700s. The OED prefers the spelling Aargh, but obviously the longer the version, then the longer the scream. In this respect it's a very peculiar and unusual word - since it offers such amazing versatility for the user. There are very few words which can be spelled in so many different ways, and it's oddly appropriate that any of the longer variants will inevitably be the very first entry in any dictionary. Spelling of Aaaaarrgghh (there's another one..) varies most commonly in the number of 'A's, and to a lesser extent in the number of 'R's. Repetition of 'G's and 'H's is far less prevalent. If you are wondering what Aaaaaarrrrgh and variants actually sound like, then consider the many types of outrageous screams which traditionally feature in fight/death/falling scenes in TV/cinema. Notable and fascinating among these is the stock sound effect - a huge Aaaaaarrrgghhh noise - known as the Wilhelm Scream. Incidentally (apparently) the term Wilhelm Scream was coined by Star Wars sound designer Ben Burtt, so-called because it was used for the character Private Wilhelm in a 1953 film The Charge at Yellow River. The sound effect was (again apparently) originally titled 'man being eaten by an alligator'. Please note that this screen version did not directly imply or suggest the modern written usage of Aaaarrrgh as an expression of shock - it's merely a point of related interest. The frustration signified by Aaargh can be meant in pure fun or in some situations (in blogs for example) with a degree of real vexation. The powerful nature of the expression is such that it is now used widely as a heading for many articles and postings dealing with frustration, annoyance, etc. The main usage however seems to be as a quick response in fun, as an ironic death scream, which is similar to more obvious expressions like 'you're killing me,' or 'I could scream'. To some people Aaaaargh suggests the ironic idea of throwing oneself out of a towerblock window to escape whatever has prompted the irritation. AAAAAARRRRGH (capitals tends to increase the volume..) is therefore a very flexible and somewhat instinctual expression: many who write it in emails and blogs would not easily be able to articulate its exact meaning, and certainly it is difficult to interpret a precise meaning for an individual case without seeing the particular exchange and what prompted the Aaargh response. That said, broadly speaking, we can infer the degree of emotion from the length of the version used. Aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaarrrrrrrrgh clearly has a touch more desperation than Aaarrgh. The use of Aaaaargh is definitely increasing in the 21st century compared to the 20th, and in different ways. Often the meaning includes an inward element like Homer Simpson's 'doh', or an incredulous aspect like Victor Meldrew's 'I don't believe it', and perhaps in time different spellings will come to mean quite specifically different things. Interestingly the web makes it possible to measure the popularity of the the different spelling versions of Aargh, and at some stage the web will make it possible to correlate spelling and context and meaning. For now, googling the different spellings will show you their relative popularity, albeit it skewed according to the use of the term on the web. I suspect that given the speed of the phone text medium, usage in texting is even more concentrated towards the shorter versions. See Oliver Steele's fascinating Aargh webpage , (he gives also Hmmm the same treatment..) showing the spellings and their Google counts as at 2005. At the time of originally writing this entry (April 2008) Google's count for Argh has now trebled (from 3 million in 2005) to 9.3 million in 2008, and is no doubt still growing fast along with its many variations. At Dec 2012 Google's count for Argh had doubled (from the 2008 figure) to 18.2 million. Aaaaaaaarrrggggh.... 59ce067264